Mathematics of Atoms (Paramanu) in Rudram Chamakam

The 11th Anuvaka of Sri Rudram Chamakam (चमकम्) describes complex mathematics behind formation of different molecules by combination different number of atoms.
Chamakam is a sanskrit hymn dedicated to Rudra (an epithet of Lord Siva), taken from the Yajurveda (Taittariya Samhita (TS) 4.5, 4.7).
Atoms Multiply Rudram Chamakam
This hymn is referred to in the Siva Purana and recitation of the Śatarudrīya is claimed, in the Jābala Upanishad, to lead to immortality.
Rudram chanting can be done with or without the accompaniment of a Vedic yagna ritual. When accompanied with the Vedic fire ritual, it is called the Rudra Yagnam. It is said that Lord Siva, after Bhasmasura was killed with the help of Lord Maha Vishnu, performed the Tandava Dance and then performed the “Rudra Yagna” for the betterment of humanity.
The place where first Rudra Yagna was performed is where the “Sri Kalahasti” Temple stands now; this temple also has one of the 5 (Pancha bhootha – Vayu, Agni, Jala, Akash, Prithvi) lingas called Vayu linga.

It consists of two texts from book four of the Taittiriya Samhita (TS 4.5, 4.7), which is a recension of the Krishna Yajurveda.
Sri Rudram or the Namakam (chapter five) describes the name or epithets of Rudra, which represent his aspects. Additionally, the devotee asks for the benevolent aspect of Siva to be invoked rather than the terrible aspect and requests forgiveness of sins. The Chamakam (chapter seven) asks for the fulfilment of wishes. Each part consist of eleven anuvaka or hymns. Traditionally Rudra is assigned the number 11, and among the thirty three deities of the Vedic pantheon, eleven are considered forms of Rudra.

Sri Rudram

The anuvakas of Sri Rudram correspond to the eleven hymns of TS 4.5, with the final anuvaka extended by an additional eight verses, including the Mahamrityunjaya Mantra. The central Saivite mantra, Aum Namah Sivaya is also derived from the Sri Rudram, it appears (without the aum) in TS 4.5.8.l.

There are eleven hymns; each has its own purpose and meaning. For instance, the seventh anuvakam is for education, progeny; the eighth anuvakam is for destruction of enemies and possession of one’s own things from them.


Second part of the text, corresponding to TS 4.7, asks God for fulfillment of wishes. The repeated phrase, cha me literally means, “and to me [be this granted]“, accompanied by a list of desirables, which are primarily necessary appurtenances for Vedic sacrifices.

The original context of the Chamakam is the piling up of the fire-altar of the Vedic religion. The hymn invokes, apart from Agni and Vishnu at the beginning, a pantheon of Vedic deities that are successively linked with Indra to enable the yajamana or sacrificer/patron to successfully perform Vedic fire sacrifices or yagnyas, such as the Agnishthoma, Somayaga, and the Ashwamedha. The Chamakam can be interpreted both as a preparatory for a physical external sacrificial ritual, and the inner, possibly yogic sacrifice involving pranic control, since the yogic “vital airs” are explicitly mentioned as sacrificial adjuncts in anuvaka, or stanza 10.

11th Anuvaka of Chamakam

Eka cha may, thisra cha may, panchas cha may, saptha cha may, nava cha may
Ekadasa cha may, tryodasa cha may, pancha dasa cha may, saptha dasa cha may,
Nava dasa cha may, eka trimsathis cha may, tryovimsathis cha may,
Pancha vimsathis cha may, saptha vimsathis cha may, nava vimsathis cha may,
Eka trimsathis cha may, tryatrimsathis cha may, pancha trimsathis cha may,

Chathasras cha may, ashtou cha may, dwadasa cha may, shodasa cha may,
Vimsathis cha may, chatur vimsathis cha may, ashtaa vimsathis cha may,
Dwathrimasthis cha may, shat trimsas cha may, chatvarimsa cha may,
Chathus chathvarimsa cha may, ashta chatvarimsa cha may,
Vaajas cha prasavas cha pijascha kradis cha suvas cha moordha cha
Vyasniyas cha anthyayanas cha anthyas cha
Bhouvans cha bhuvanas chadhipadhis cha.

Eka cha may means 1,
Square root of 1 = 1.
thisra cha may means 1+3 = 4.
Square root of 4 = 2.
Panchas cha may means 5+4 = 9.
Square root of 9 = 3.
Sapta cha may means 7 + 9 = 16.
Square root of 16 = 4.
Nava cha may means 9 + 16 = 25.
Square root of 25 = 5.
Ekadasa cha may means 11 + 25 = 36.
Square root of 36 = 6.
Tryodasa cha may means 13 + 36 = 49.
Square root of 49 = 7.

This goes on till Nava ving satis cha may where ytou derive 361 + 39 = 400 and square root of 400 = 20.
The algorithm described in this 11th anuvaka of chamakam has odd numbers in them with hidden even numbers between them.
This description is about multiple combinations of atoms to form various molecules.
Siva is described to be in anu-poorva sthiti (pre-atomic state), which means electrons, protons and neutrons.
They combine to form atoms and these atoms when combine is different numbers will form molecules.
Vishnu (mean, the one who is spread all over) is such molecules which create elements and substances in this creation.
Acharya Kaṇāda used these concepts to Vaishesika Sutras, which describe Laws of Motion & Concept of Atom.

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