Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1340 – c. 1425), was an Indian mathematician-astronomer from the town of Sangamagrama. His writings were later transmitted to Europe via Jesuit missionaries and traders who were active around the ancient port of Muziris at the …

Surya Siddhanta is the first among the traditions or doctrines (siddhanta) in archaeo-astronomy of the Vedic era. Infact, it is the oldest ever book in world which describes earth as sphere but not flat, gravity being reason for …

Pingala (Devanagari: पिङ्गल) is the author of Chandaḥśāstra (Chandaḥsūtra), the earliest known Sanskrit treatise on prosody. Very less historical knowledge is available about Pingala, though his works are retained till date. He is identified either as the younger brother of …

Brahmagupta (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मगुप्त) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who lived between 597–668 AD and wrote two important works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta in 628 AD (Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma) which is a theoretical treatise, and the …

Bhaskaracharya (Bhāskara the teacher) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer of 12th century AD. He is refered as Bhāskara II to avoid confusion with Bhāskara I (of 7th century AD). He was born near Vijjadavida (Bijapur in modern …

Aryabhata, born in 476 CE, was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. There is a general tendency to misspell his name as “Aryabhatta” by analogy with …

In mathematics, the Pythagorean (Pythagoras) theorem (written around 400 BC) is a relation among the three sides of a right triangle (right-angled triangle). In terms of areas, it states: “In any right-angled triangle, the area of the square whose side …