History of Andhra since 4th Millennium BCE

The last King of Kanva Dynasty (7th dynasty to rule Magadha Kingdom), Susarma was killed by his general and minister by name Sindhuka or Srimukha (an Andhra Brahmin) who ascended to the throne of Magadha in 833 BCE.

This article is in continuation with series of Magadha History since 4159 BCE, which also has Chanakya-Chandragupta Maurya reign
Various Puranas have different names for the founder of the Andhra dynasty (8th dynasty to rule Magadha) : Shishuka in Matsya Purana, Sipraka in Vishnu Purana, Sindhuka in Vayu Purana, Chhesmaka in Brahmanda Purana, and Shudraka or Suraka in Kumarika Khanda of Skanda Purana. These are corrupted spellings of Simuka, resulting from copying and re-copying of manuscripts.
Kng Mahabali who was ruling from Kerala, went to Patala (South America), his 6 sons went onto establish races and kingdoms in between East to South India.
They were Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Sumha, Pundra, Andhra.
Kingdoms on these names were formed between Coast of Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
Matsya Purana mentions that the Andhra dynasty ruled for 506 years.
Following is the list of Andhra Kings who ruled Magadha :

Andhra Dynasty King’s NameReigning Years (BCE)
1. Srimukha or Sisuka or Sindhuka833 – 810
2. Sri Krishna Satakarni (Kanha)810 – 792
3. Sri Malla Satakarni792 – 782
4. Purnothsanga782 – 764
5. Sri Satakarni764 – 708
6. Skandhasatambhin708 – 690
7. Lambodara690 – 672
8. Apitaka672 – 660
9. Meghaswati660 – 642
10. Sataswati642 – 624
11· Skanda Satakarni624 – 617
12. Mrugendra Satakarni617 – 614
13. Kuntala Satakarni614 – 606
14. Soumya Satakarni606 – 594
15. Satasatakarni594 – 593
16. Puloma Satakarni or Puloma-I593 – 557
17. Megha Satakarni557 – 519
18. Arishta Satakarni (during his reign Adi Sankara was born in 509 BCE)519 – 494
19. Hala Satavahana (Few kings called themselves Satakarni or Satavahana)494 – 489
20. Mandalaka Satavahana489 – 484
21. Purindrasena (during his reign Adi Sankara attained nirvana in 477 BCE)484 – 463
22. Sundara Satakari463 – 462
23· Chakora Satakarni462 – 461½
24. Mahendra Satakarni461½ – 461
25. Siva Satakarni461 – 433
26. Gautami Putra Sri Satakarni433 – 408
27. Puloma II (Vasishtaputra Pulumavi)408 – 376
28. Siva Sri Satakarni376 – 369
29. Sivaskanda Satakarn369 – 362
30. Yajna Sri Satakarni362 – 343
31. Vijaya Sri Satakarni343 – 337
32. Chandra Sri Satakarni337 – 334
33. Puloma III (minor)334 – 327

History of Andhra since 4th Millenium BCE

Andhras were mentioned in Aitareya Brahmana, in Mahabharata and Bhagavata Purana too.
Few Andhras fought from side of Kaurvas in Kurukshetra war. Remaining were defeated by Sahadeva during Aswamedha Yaga (around 3100 BCE).
One Andhra named Chanura was mentioned in Bhagavatam. Kansa, with the help of his father-in-law Jarasandha’s aides Pralamba, Baka, Chanura, Trinavarta, Agha, Mushtika, Arishta, Kaga, Shakatasura, Putana, Kesi, Dhenuka, Vana, Bhouma and other Asuras, tormented the Yadavas.
Out of this Chanura was an Andhra wrestler who was killed by Krishna, just before Kamsa was killed on 14 December 3218 BCE (Siva Ratri).
Chanura killed by Krishna
Vishnu Sahasranamam has a name Chanurandhra nishoodhanaha, for Krishna, which means killer of an Andhra guy called Chanura.
This proves that Andhra kingdom and race existed atleast since 4th millenium BCE.
Andhra was split into multiple kingdoms before 1000 BCE, a warrior named Vallabha united them into one kingdom, which he called ‘Trilinga Desam‘.
According to a boon given to him by Lord Siva, the triangle shaped territory formed between Three-Lingas (DraksharamamSrisailamKaleswaram) was ruled by him and thus was called Trilinga Desam.
Trilinga Desam
He was considered as an avatar of Andhra Maha Vishnu, whose Temple is in Srikakulam (near Vijayawada) and it was also Andhra capital more than 3000 years ago.
His father had an army of 30000 brahmin warriors.
Few of them split after this kingdom collapsed and went on to serve Magadha kings during Kanva dynasty rule.
One of them (Simuka/Srimukha) killed Susarma (last among kanva kings) and took over Magadha empire and established Andhra dynasty rule in India.

Simhaka Sri Satakarni or Srimukha, or Sindhuka, gradually rose to a position of minister of state and commander of the armed forces in Narayana’s kingdom and continued in Susarma’s rule too.
He established an Andhra Army within Magadha army.
Susarma was a puppet in his minister’s hands. Srimukha, with help of his Andhra Army killed the king and took over the throne.
During his regime, Andhra Satavahana Dynasty spread into all parts of India, from Kashmir till South.
Puranas mention that Andhra Satavahana race spilt-up into several offshoots and spread all over India.
127th king in the list of Kashmir Kings, “Sangrama Raja (1012-1027 CE)“, was the nephew or brother’s son to Didda Devi; and was son of Lohar king. Rajatarangini clearly mentions that he was a descendant of Satavahana family.

Srimukha became tyrant during his last years of rule and was killed for this reason.
Satavahana on Lion
Sata-Vahana means Man who rode Lion. Andhras a race show special, regard and love for the lion. A woman riding on the lion, ‘Simhastha’ is a popular deity in their religious literature and in the images of goddesses carved on the walls in their religious institutions.
19th King in this dynasty, Haala, son of Arishta Saatakarni was contemporary to Adi Sankaracharya.
Hala Satakarni had special interest in literature and bestowed special attention to the development of the Prakrit or Vernacular literature of the country.
Katantra grammer, arranged with special reference to the needs of students more familiar with the Vernacular speech than with the so-called classical language is attributed to one of the ministers of this king. Haala himself is credited with the composition of the Anthology of erotic verses, called the ‘Sapta-Sataka’ or ‘The Seven centuries’ written in the ancient Maharashtri dialect.

During the reign of 21st king Purindrasena, Saptarshi Mandala (or the Great Bear) completed one cycle of 2700 years commencing from the entrance in Magha in 3176 BCE and begins its 2nd cycle from Magha again in 476 BCE.
Western Kshatrapas (known to the Satavahanas as Shakas) expanded their empire at the expense of Satavahanas in the years preceding the reign of Gautamiputra Satakarni. He revived the Satavahana power. by defeating the Shakas (Western Kshatrapas), the Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians), and the Yavanas (Indo-Greeks).
It also states that he emerged victorious in several fights against a confederacy of enemies.

Reason for maternal names addition to King’s name

Gautamiputra” literally means “son of Gautami Balasri“, while Satakarni is a title common to several Satavahana kings. Such matronymics also appear in the names of other Satavahana kings, including Vasishthiputra Pulumavi (“Pulumavi, son of Vasishthi”). These do not indicate a matriarchy or a matrilineal descent system.
The real explanation for matronymics seems to be that since the rulers married a number of wives from different royal families, a prince was best identified with reference to his mother.

33 kings of the Andhra dynasty reigned over Magadha for a period of 506 years; and while they are still on the throne their kingdom passed into the hands of the Guptas, who are known as Sri Parvatiya Andhra-Bhrutya kings.
Chandra Gupta, son of Ghatotkcha Gupta and grandson of Sri Gupta, who came from Sri Parvata(Nepal), originally entered the service of Vijayasri Satakarni as one of his generals and with whose help, he managed his tottering kingdom.
It was in the history of Magadha and Andhras that a minister or general or son-in-law dethrones the existing king and starts his new rule.
Last two kings of the Andhra Dynasty- Chandrasri and his son (Puloman III) enjoyed little power, and were mere puppets in the hands of their generals, Ghatotkacha Gupta and his son Chandra Gupta, the latter of whom, under the guise of protecting the country on behalf of Puloman III, the minor son of Chandra Sri, murdered the prince and ascended the throne of Magadha under the title of Maharajadhiraja in the year 327 BCE, just when Alexander the Great was attempting to enter into the Great continent of India through the Hindukush Mountains.